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Outreach, Care, & Prevention to Engage HIV Seropositive Young MSM of Color

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Journal Articles

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This initiative funded eight demonstration projects to develop and evaluate innovative service models designed to reach HIV-infected young (ages 13-24) men who have sex with men (MSM) of color engaged in clinical care and to link them to appropriate clinical, supportive, and preventive services.  The initiative's objectives were to support innovative outreach to assist HIV-infected young MSM of color to learn their HIV status; link them with primary care services, and prevent transmission of HIV infection from targeted clients.  An evaluation and technical assistance center was also funded to coordinate the design and implementation of a multi-site evaluation.



HRSA awarded grants under its Special Projects of National Significance program to the organizations listed below.

Men of Color Health Awareness Project
Rochester, NY

This project modified and adapted comprehensive, theory based, and culturally appropriate prevention intervention programs for use with HIV-infected YCMSM; established an effective outreach program which identified infected YMSM of Color and linked them into care; and increased counseling and testing for this population. The project adapted the Many Men, Many Voices (3MV) curriculum for the younger target audience they enrolled and validated associated instruments.  They also intensified outreach; co-located services; and expanded other services to enhance outreach efforts. The local evaluation was conducted by a University of Rochester School of Nursing research team.


Los Angeles County Department of Health Services
Los Angeles, CA

The Los Angeles County HIV Epidemiology Program (LACHEP) offered expanded, active, community-based outreach plus HIV counseling and testing, followed by referral and linkage into care at one of two clinics: AltaMed and Drew University Oasis Clinic. The program offered  Latino and African American YMSM intensive integrated case management (ICM) sessions at local clinics.  The intervention was composed of active and passive community outreach, with mobile and clinic-based CTR, using incentives for post-testing; and one-hour integrated case management (ICM) sessions at two sites – one African American identified and the other Latino identified, with biweekly peer support groups for clients, partner counseling and referral services, and transition to standard case management after two years.


University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Chapel Hill, NC

This project was a collaboration between UNC and community-based prevention and case management agencies. It involved conducting and evaluating a social marketing campaign on college campuses; and promoting access to HIV treatment and care among newly diagnosed African American HIV-infected college students at a consortium of colleges. They assessed the prevalence of acute HIV infections through a serosurvey, and compared outcomes between campuses exposed and not exposed to the intervention. UNC partnered with North Carolina Central University, a historic Black university, and the Alliance of AIDS Services, a community-based AIDS service organization.


AIDS Project East Bay
Oakland, CA

AIDS Project East Bay (APEB) collaborated with the Sexual Minority Alliance of Alameda County (SMAAC) and Alameda County Medical Center (ACMC) in this project. The project involved a youth-directed, community-based outreach initiative implementing both new and adapted programs within an existing network of programs focusing on African American YMSM.


Harris County Public Health and Environmental Services 
Houston, TX

This project sought to engage HIV seropositive YCMSM into care, link them into appropriate services, and facilitate retention in care using existing locally defined categories of RWCA services. It evaluated a new approach to case management which coordinated a variety of relevant services into one Client Management Team (CMT)—a wide-ranging and intensive service which provides outreach, medical care coordination, service linkage, peer counseling, health education, and other services to engage and retain high risk youth in care. Evaluation included use of existing client data, and comparison with previously enrolled clients.


Bronx AIDS Services, Inc.
Bronx, NY

The Bronx Boogie Down Project was a collaboration of Bronx AIDS Services, Inc. and the Adolescent AIDS Program of the Children’s Hospital at Montefiore Medical Center. The project sought to improve outreach, care and prevention services to engage seropositive YCMSM in the region and help them stay in care. The project used social and geographic mapping, performed by community ethnographer-organizers (CEOs), to identify high-risk areas for the target population. It also developed new methods of outreach to improve access to services and established use of popular opinion leaders.


Wayne State University
Detroit, MI

This project conducted innovative field and Internet outreach to encourage YCMSM to learn their HIV status and enroll, engage, and stay in care. The investigators used and evaluated a motivational interviewing (MI) strategy, with extensive MI training provided to field workers, to encourage at-risk YCMSM to be counseled and tested for HIV. Traditional peer-outreach was compared with traditional peer outreach in combination with MI. The project also conducted an evaluation of internet-based outreach to this population.


Working for Togetherness
Chicago, IL

The Chicago Area Priority Access (CAPA) Project at Working For Togetherness sought to decrease barriers within the HIV/AIDS healthcare delivery system for young African American MSM (YAAMSM) and increase integration of services for these young men. The three primary goals of the CAPA Project were to conduct outreach to deliver HIV prevention messages and increase early detection of seropositive YAAMSM; develop an integrated, adolescent-specific continuum of care network for seropositive YAAMSM; and create and operate a Youth Empowerment Center to increase youth self-efficacy to enter and remain in culturally- and developmentally-appropriate HIV primary care. Project activities included maintaining and enhancing the CAPA Project Continuum of Care, housing and implementing preventive interventions for HIV-positive YAAMSM in the Youth Empowerment Center; performing local and multi-site evaluation activities; and disseminating project information and evaluation findings at local and national conferences. The CAPA Project evaluation assessed the effectiveness of “Mobile Tech” outreach in helping YAAMSM receive HIV prevention services, learn their HIV status, and access medical care. The project also adapted a CDC – Effective Behavioral Intervention to determine effectiveness in reducing HIV risk behaviors among these youth.


Journal Articles

Phillips G 2nd, Hightow-Weidman LB, Fields SD, Giordano TP, Outlaw AY, Halpern-Felsher B, Wohl AR. Experiences of community and parental violence among HIV-positive young racial/ethnic minority men who have sex with men. AIDS Care, July 2014; 26 (7): 827-834. PubMed Abstract

Hightow-Weidman LB, Phillips G 2nd, Outlaw AY, Wohl AR, Fields S, Hildalgo J, & Legrand S.  Patterns of HIV Disclosure and Condom Use Among HIV-Infected Young Racial/Ethnic Minority Men Who Have Sex with Men. AIDS and Behavior, January 2013; 17 (1): 360-368. PubMed Abstract

Phillips G 2nd, Hightow-Weidman LB, Arya M, Fields SD, Halpern-Felsher B, Outlaw AY, Wohl AR, & Hidalgo J. HIV testing behaviors of a cohort of HIV-positive racial/ethnic minority YMSM. AIDS and Behavior, October 2012; 16(7): 1917-1925.  PubMed Abstract

Tinsley M & Xavier J.  Outreach, Care and Prevention to Engage HIV Seropositive Young Men of Color Who Have Sex with Men: A Special Project of National Significance Program Initiative.  AIDS Patient Care and STDs, August 25, 2011; 25 (Supplement 1): S1-S2. (No abstract available).

Phillips G 2nd, Wohl A, Xavier J, Jones K, Hidalgo J. Epidemiologic data on young men of color who have sex with men. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, August 25, 2011; 25 (Supplement 1): S3-S8. PubMed Abstract

Hightow-Weidman LB, Jones K, Phillips G 2nd, Wohl A, Giordano TP; and the YMSM of Color SPNS Initiative Study Group. Baseline clinical characteristics, antiretroviral therapy use, and viral load suppression among HIV-positive young men of color who have sex with men. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, August 25, 2011; 25 (Supplement 1): S9-S14. PubMed Abstract

Hidalgo J, Coombs E, Cobbs WO, Green-Jones M, Phillips G 2nd, Wohl AR, Smith JC, Ramos AD, Fields SD, & the YMSM of Color SPNS Initiative Study Group.  Roles and challenges of outreach workers in HIV clinical and support programs serving young racial/ethnic minority men who have sex with men. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, August 25, 2011; 25 (Supplement 1): S15-S22. PubMed Abstract

Outlaw AY, Phillips G 2nd, Hightow-Weidman LB, Fields SD, Hidalgo J, Halpern-Felsher B, Green-Jones M; and the Young MSM of Color SPNS Initiative Study Group.  Age of MSM sexual debut and risk factors: results from a multisite study of racial/ethnic minority YMSM living with HIV. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, August 25, 2011; 25 (Supplement 1): S23-S29. PubMed Abstract

Hightow-Weidman LB, Jones K, Wohl AR, Futterman D, Outlaw A, Phillips G 2nd, Hidalgo J, Giordano TP; and the YMSM of Color SPNS Initiative Study Group. Early linkage and retention in care: findings from the outreach, linkage, and retention in care initiative among young men of color who have sex with men. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, August 25, 2011; 25 (Supplement 1): S31-S38. PubMed Abstract

Hightow-Weidman LB, Phillips G 2nd, Jones KC, Outlaw AY, Fields SD, Smith JC; and the YMSM of Color SPNS Initiative Study Group.  Racial and sexual identity-related maltreatment among minority YMSM: prevalence, perceptions, and the association with emotional distress.  AIDS Patient Care and STDs, August 25, 2011; 25 (Supplement 1): S39-S45. PubMed Abstract

Phillips G 2nd, Outlaw AY, Hightow-Weidman LB, Jones KC, Wohl AR, Futterman D, Skinner JA, Fields S, Hidalgo J; and the YMSM of Color SPNS Initiative Study Group.  Sexual Behaviors of Racial/Ethnic Minority Young Men Who Have Sex With men. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, August 25, 2011; 25 (Supplement 1): S47-S53. PubMed Abstract

Phillips G, Peterson J, Binson D, Hidalgo J, & Magnus M for the YMSM of Color SPNS Initiative Study Group.  House/ball culture and adolescent African-American transgender persons and men who have sex with men: a synthesis of the literature. AIDS Care, April, 2011; 23(4): 515-520. PubMed Abstract

Hightow-Weidman LB, Hurt CB, Phillips G 2nd, Jones K, Magnus M, Giordano TP, Outlaw A, Ramos D, Enriquez-Bruce E, Cobbs W, Wohl A, Tinsley M; and the YMSM of Color SPNS Initiative Study Group.  Transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance among young men of color who have sex with men: a multicenter cohort analysis. Journal of Adolescent Health, January 2011; 48(1): 94-99.  PubMed Abstract

Hightow-Weidman LB, Smith JC, Valera E, Matthews DD, & Lyons P. Keeping them in "STYLE": finding, linking, and retaining young HIV-positive black and Latino men who have sex with men in care. AIDS Patient Care and STDS, January 2011; 25(1): 37-45.  PubMed Abstract

Outlaw AY, Naar-King S, Parsons JT, Green-Jones M, Janisse H, & Secord E. Using Motivational Interviewing in HIV Field Outreach With Young African American Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Randomized Clinical Trial. American Journal of Public Health, April 1 2010; 100 (Supplement 1): S146-151. PubMed Abstract

Magnus M, Jones K, Phillips G, Binson D, Hightow-Weidman LB, Richards-Clarke C, Wohl AR, Outlaw A, Giordano TP, Quamina A, Cobbs W, Fields SD, Tinsley M, Cajina A, & Hidalgo J, for the YMSM of Color SPNS Initiative Study Group. Characteristics Associated With Retention Among African American and Latino Adolescent HIV-Positive Men: Results From the Outreach, Care, and Prevention to Engage HIV-Seropositive Young MSM of Color Special Project of National Significance Initiative. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, April 1, 2010: 53 (4): 529-536. PubMed Abstract

Hightow LB, Leone PA, Macdonald PD, McCoy SI, Sampson LA, & Kaplan AH. Men who have sex with men and women: a unique risk group for HIV transmission on North Carolina College campuses. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, October 2006; 33 (10): 585-593. PubMed Abstract

Fields SD, Wharton MJ, Marrero AI, Little A, Pannell K, & Morgan JH. Internet chat rooms: connecting with a new generation of young men of color at risk for HIV who have sex with other men. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, November-December 2006; 17(6): 53-60. PubMed Abstract


Part F - SPNS Resources

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The SPNS program began with some of the first Federal grants to target adolescents and women living with HIV, and over the years, initiatives have been developed to reflect the evolution of the epidemic and the health care arena.

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